What do you understand by Pathogenesis of Congestive Heart Failure?

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All of the following are compensatory mechanisms that occur during the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure EXCEPT:

a) An increase in ventricular end-diastolic volume

b) An increase in the concentration of plasma catecholamines

c) An increase in vagal tone

d) Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone syste

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